A consideration of the social impact of cybercrime Examples from fraud piracy and child abuse material (Haughton, Aiken et al, 2015)

Contemporary news headlines seem to play regular host to treatments of one form of cybercrime or another, whether it be fraud, hacking, malware, piracy or child abuse material online. In this paper, the meaning of that term is unpacked, social impact is considered and possible future developments are discussed. Given the pervasive and profound influence of the Internet, it is important to acknowledge that in terms of criminology, what happens online can impact on the real world and vice versa. Consequently, real-world and cyber social impacts in relation to cybercrime will be examined.

Cyber Babies: The Impact of Emerging Technology on the Developing Infant (Haughton, Aiken et al, 2015)

Technology is now ubiquitous with almost 3.2 billion people of the world’s current population online (International Telecommunications Union, 2015). Whilst technology offers opportunities for education and entertainment, its impact on vulnerable populations such as the developing infant requires specific, careful consideration. Fourteen percent of infants (aged 6 to 23 months) watch at least two hours of media per day and one third of children under 3 have a television (TV) in their bedroom (Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007a). Twenty-five percent of 3-year-olds go online daily (Bernstein & Levine, 2011) and 28% of 3 to 4-year-olds now use tablet computers (Ofcom, 2014). Children are growing up with a digital foundation, they are interacting with and immersed in cyberspace where they learn, entertain themselves and play. During the first three years of life, the brain creates some 700 new neural connections every second. Synapse formation for key developmental functions such as hearing, language and cognition peak during this time, creating a critical foundation for higher-level functions (Zero to Three, 2015). Very young children are becoming experts at using technology and are true digital natives. Yet what long-term effects will this early exposure have from a developmental perspective? Researchers are now questioning how interactive media may affect children both mentally and physically (American Academy of Paediatrics, 2011; Radesky, Schumacher, & Zuckerman, 2014)

Cyber Criminology: Algorithmic vs. Heuristical Approaches for Analysis within the Human Trafficking Domain (Aiken & Chan, 2015)

Visual and auditory information has dominated the field of virtual reality (VR). Evaluation of the role of sensory stimulation in VR has highlighted olfactory stimulation as a potentially powerful yet underutilized therapeutic tool. Early studies of immersive environments, which were run as experiments, incorporated smell in the virtual experience; however, olfaction in virtual environment design and development has arguably failed to maintain a position commensurate with its sensory capacity, exemplified by the paucity of research and possible application. A review of the literature suggests that olfaction as a component of virtual environment exposure therapy may be a useful addition in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a mental health condition triggered by a terrifying event, either experiencing or witnessing it.